There are only three articles in English: a , an and the .

There are two types of articles indefinite a and an or definite the .

Their proper use is complex especially when you get into the advanced use of English. Quite often you have to work by what sounds right, which can be frustrating for a learner.

We usually use no article to talk about things in general - the doesn't mean all.

For example:

"Books are expensive." = (All books are expensive.)
" The books are expensive." = (Not all books are expensive, just the ones I'm talking about.)

Indefinite articles - a and an (determiners)

A and an are the indefinite articles. They refer to something not specifically known to the person you are communicating with.

A and an are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before:-

For example:

"I saw an elephant this morning."
"I ate a banana for lunch."

A and an are also used when talking about your profession

For example:

"I am an English teacher."
"I am a builder."


You use a when the noun you are referring to begins with a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y or z), for example, "a city" and "a factory"

You use an when the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)

Pronunciation changes this rule.

If the next word begins with a consonant sound when we say it, for example, "university" then we use a. If the next word begins with a vowel sound when we say it, for example "hour" then we use an.

We say "university" with a "y" sound at the beginning as though it were spelt "youniversity".
So, "a university" IS correct.

We say "hour" with a silent h as though it were spelt "our".
So, "an hour" IS correct.

Definite Article - the (determiners)

You use the when you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person/thing you are talking about.

For example:

"The apple you ate was rotten."
"Did you lock the car?"

You should also use the when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.

For example:

"She's got two children; a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the boy's fourteen."

We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe.

For example:

the North Pole, the equator

We use the to talk about rivers, oceans and seas

For example:

the Nile, the Pacific, the English channel

We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing.

For example:

the rain, the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House etc..

However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use a/an.

For example:

"I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing."

"What are your plans for the future?" / "She has a promising future ahead of her."

The is also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best, most famous, etc. In this use, 'the' is usually given strong pronunciation:

For example:

"Harry's Bar is the place to go."

"You don't mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?"

Do not use the before:

· names of countries (Italy, Mexico, Bolivia) except the Netherlands and the US

· names of cities, towns, or states (Seoul, Manitoba, Miami)

· names of streets (Washington Blvd., Main St.)

· names of lakes and bays (Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie) except with a group of lakes like the Great Lakes

· names of mountains (Mount Everest, Mount Fuji) except with ranges of mountains like the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn

· names of continents (Asia, Europe)

· names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands

Do use the before:

· names of rivers, oceans and seas (the Nile, the Pacific)

· points on the globe (the Equator, the North Pole)

· geographical areas (the Middle East, the West)

· deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas (the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Black Forest, the Iberian Peninsula)

No article

You do not use an article before nouns when talking in general terms.

For example:

Inflation is rising.

People are worried about rising crime. (Note! People generally, so no article)

You do not use an article when talking about sports.

For example:

My son plays football.

Tennis is expensive.

You do not use an article before uncountable nouns when talking about them generally.

For example:

Information is important to any organisation.

Coffee is bad for you.

You do not use an article before the names of countries except where they contain the words (state(s), kindom, republic, union). Kingdom, state, republic and union are nouns, so they needs an article.

For example:

No article - Italy, Mexico, Bolivia

Use the - the UK, the USA, the Irish Republic

Note! the Netherlands

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